Drake Cross (aka Prayer Book Cross), Golden Gate Park, San Francisco

Our recent blog post focusing on the history of the Cross has bought to our attention a link to another commemorative Celtic Cross. This is the Prayer Book Cross, or Drake Cross, situated in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco which was erected in 1894 to mark the occasion of Sir Francis Drake’s landing and the first Church of England sermon on the American continent. This Cross served as inspiration for Archdeacon Walsh to create and raise funds for a monument to Samuel Marsden’s landing and first sermon in New Zealand.

Here is a Diocese of Auckland Church Gazette article from 1905 which gives the background to the Marsden Cross and mentions the cross at Golden Gate:

“Through the generosity of Mr G. W. Childs of Philadelphia, the Bishop of San Francisco was able to place, some years ago, at the “Golden Gate”, a gigantic monument known as “The Prayer Book Cross”, to mark the spot where Francis Drake’s chaplain held the first Anglican service on the Pacific Coast of America. It is not likely that we should be able to afford a monument on the same scale, but we could easily manage a substantial stone cross of sufficient dimensions to be a conspicuous landmark plainly visible from the ships entering the Bay of Islands.”

Another earlier article from the Church Gazette describes the Drake Cross and it’s unveiling, likely this was read with enthusiasm by Archdeacon Walsh:

“It was at first intended to have the monument erected at Drake’s Bay, but when the Park commissioners tended a site on an elevation of up to 300 feet above the ocean, where the monument would be visible to observers from the ocean, from the Golden Gate, and from the city, and be a conspicuous landmark, it was decided to accept the offer. The monument is in the shape of a Celtic cross and is known as the ‘Prayer-Book Cross’. It is the largest cross in the world, and is one of the most notable pieces of stonework in the American continent.”

1912 Maori New Testament dedicated to the 1914 and 1964 Marsden celebrations

A small and fragile 1912 Maori New Testament and psalms, ‘Ko Te Kawenata Hou’ was given to the Library some years ago.  Inside it has an interesting story to tell, as the donor or his antecedents have collected signatures relating to the Marsden Centenary celebrations in 1914 and later events.

KIN-254-1-1-inscriptions

Maori New Testament and Psalms from 1912 showing dedication and signatures. [Archives ref.: KIN 254/1/1].

 Archbishop Walter Averill has written:

“A. W. Auckland, In remembrance of the Marsden Centenary XMAS Day, 1914.  Laus Deo.”

It is also signed by Marion P. Marsden, A M Betts, mayor of Goulburn, NSW, and Lizzie Betts, as well as Hilda Marsden Venables, great neice of Dr Marsden, from Southwell, England.

In 1964, the little book came out again to be signed by R. E. Mardsen, great great grandson of Samuel Marsden “150th anniversary celebrations, 1964”.

In the front pages are pasted a photograph of the Cross at Oihi, and a card in Maori “He Whakamaharatanga mo Te Kirihimete”, 1914 (In Remembrance of Christmas 1914).

KIN-254-1-1-frontis

Maori New Testament and Psalms from 1912 showing description of the 1814 sermon in Te Reo and photograph of the Marsden Cross. [Archives ref.: KIN 254/1/1].

The Landing of Samuel Marsden at the Bay of Islands on Christmas Day 1814 by Captain M. T. Clayton

The Landing of Samuel Marsden at the Bay of Islands on Christmas Day 1814. Painted by Captain M. T. Clayton, 1914.       John Kinder Theological Library.

Currently on display at the John Kinder Theological Library is a painting by Captain Matthew Thomas Clayton, depicting Samuel Marsden’s landing at the Bay of Islands to preach a Christmas Day sermon in 1814.

An article in the December 1914 issue of Church Gazette states that “[…] a few months before his death, Archdeacon Walsh gave to Captain Clayton a sketch in chalk of the landing of the Rev. Samuel Marsden, at the Bay of Islands, on Christmas Day, 1814.” From that sketch, Captain Clayton created his painting which was then hung at an Auckland art exhibition. The painting failed to sell and was offered to the members of the Synod for purchase to present to the Diocese and was later gifted to St. John’s College.

The painting also has a copper plaque attached to the frame, the inscription reads: – ‘The Landing of Samuel Marsden, at the Bay of Islands on Christmas Day, 1814.’ The copper was given to Clayton by the Captain W. Farquhar, of the ship ‘Clansman’, which was claimed to have come from the sailing ship ‘Boyd’, attacked by local Maori in the Whangaroa Harbour in December 1809; five years previous to Marsden’s arrival in the Bay of Islands.

Inscription plaque attached to frame. John Kinder Theological Library.

Inscription plaque attached to frame. John Kinder Theological Library.

Church-Gazette-Dec-1st-1914

Church Gazette, December 1st 1914. John Kinder Theological Library.

NB. The Church Gazette is currently under going digitisation and will be available on Church Papers Online in the near future. 

The Cross at Oihi

Marsden Cross at Oihi Bay with broken piece in foreground. Taken from 'Church & People' December 1964. http://kinderlibrary.outofprint.co.nz/issues/read/383#idx0

Marsden Cross at Oihi Bay with broken piece in foreground. Taken from ‘Church & People’ December 1964. http://kinderlibrary.outofprint.co.nz/issues/read/383#idx0

The original cross was erected in 1907.  It was formally unveiled March 12 by his Excellency the Governor, with a crowd of around 300, and many others watching from boats offshore.

At that time the monument was described as

The monument is in the form of a Celtic cross standing on a massive “die,” over a base and sub-base. The whole structure is of hard stone, the cross and die being of Melbourne bluestone, from the Malmesbury  quarries, Victoria, and the bases of local volcanic stone. On the front of the die is a slab, bearing the inscription, in deeply—cut Roman‘ letters.

It was designed by Archdeacon Walsh and made by Mr Bouskill of Symonds Street and cost about 225 pounds.

The fundraising for the cross was first publicised in the Church Gazette of the Diocese of Auckland, November 1905, the matter having been the subject of a resolution of the previous Diocesan Synod.

Archdeacon Walsh wrote “The scale of the cross would of course depend on the funds available, but the object being one that appeals so strongly to every Christian in New Zealand, there should be no difficulty in obtaining a sum sufficient to erect a really worthy monument.  I have already received a promise of 100m pounds and three promises of 5 pounds each, on the condition that the memorial be in the shape of a stone cross, to be erected on, or as near as possible to the spot on which the service was held …

In April 1918, the Bishop visited Oihi and noted at the Standing Committee meeting, that the top part of the cross had fallen off after a recent storm.  After fundraising again, it was later repaired with a new top section added.  The photograph shows the cross with its replacement top section and the old part lying on the ground.

Marsden Cross at Oihi Bay. John Kinder Theological Library. Archive ref: SJC 28/1/164 [A0164]

Marsden Cross at Oihi Bay. John Kinder Theological Library. Archive ref: SJC 28/1/164 [A0164]

Churchabilia! – letter opener carved from the Melanesian Mission schooner ‘Southern Cross’

This delightful keepsake was donated to the library by F. M. Doig from his wife’s family treasures and was recently requested by an overseas researcher studying the Melanesian Mission.

This item is one, among others, that were originally made as a fundraiser for the Melanesian Mission at the turn of the Twentieth Century.

The inscription on the front reads:

“O kano mornkel apen (motú for) In remembrance of Bishop Patterson and Bishop Selwyn.”

And on the back:

“Made out of a bit of the Melanesian Mission schooner, ‘Southern Cross’ 1814-1891.”

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We will be sharing more eclectic keepsakes from our collections in the near future. Stay tuned!

Te Rongopai 1814 ‘Takoto te Pai!’

The recently published book, Te Rongopai 1814 ‘Takoto te pai!’, is a collection of essays, originally presented at a conference held in Waitangi in 2012, exploring Marsden and the early Missionary beginnings in New Zealand. This book gives an insight into early Christianity in New Zealand including relations between missionaries and local iwi and how they viewed this new culture and religion.

Copies can be purchased from the Anglican General Synod Office for $30 (plus $3 for p&p). They are contactable on 09 521 4439 or email at gensec@anglicanchurch.org.nz.

Cheques to: Anglican Church General Synod Office

Direct Debit: 02-0192-0130001-004 witrh reference ‘your surname’ and ‘C1/9980′.

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Reverend Wiki Te Paa witnesses the eruption of Mt. Tarawera

At the John Kinder Theological Library, we hold a copy of Reverend Wiki Te Paa’s journal made available for students and researchers by Dr. Jenny Te Paa, granddaughter of Wiki Te Paa. The original is held in private hands. Our Kaiwhakamana, Colenso Eramiha, has been studying the passages in Te Reo and creating a basic index of names, dates and events that will be of great help to researchers.

During his research, Colenso was surprised to find this entry on an infamous date in 1886, as Te Paa was visiting Rotorua; he travelled large distances to visit Maori people in rural parishes. Colenso has provided the following translation of the beginning of this entry:

 

Mokoia

 One o’clock in the evening of the 9th day of June, 1886.  A great earthquake occurred at Te Wairoa, Rotorua.  The land was turned upside down and flames met the sky. There were earthquakes, thunder,  lightning and a great wind. The land was buried in sand. We thought it was the time of the end of this world. 

 

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Te Wairoa, buried in thick layers of volcanic mud, the lava having mixed with seawater and soil, was almost completely destroyed. Wiki Te Paa paints a remarkable eyewitness account to a catastrophic event that forever changed the landscape of Aotearoa.

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